Deep Sea Diamond News • November 27, 2019
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder that characterized by hyperglycemia. DM resulted from defects in insulin secretion, action, or both of them. The chronic hyperglycemia can lead to diabetic complication which is considered as a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Marine invertebrates, sea cucumber have an impressive profile of valuable bioactive compounds, for instance, holothurians that exhibit a wide range of biological activities and have many therapeutic effects. This review highlights the valuable bioactive saponin on the complication of diabetes.
Sea Cucumber, Echinoderms belong to a phylum of marine invertebrates that have about 6000 living species classified into five classes: Crinoidea, Holothuroidea, Echinoidea, Asteroidea, and Ophiuroidea. The extract of these marine invertebrates have been shown to numerous biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor and anti-coagulant, this bioactive compound has made them an attractive source . Sea cucumbers have long been recognized in the folk medicine in addition to their high nutritious value, they could nourish the body, tonifying kidney, moistening dryness of the intestine, treatment of stomach ulcers, asthma, hypertension, rheumatism, pain, gout, asthtma, eczema, hyperglycemia, hypertension and wound healing [13,14]. They have the ability to reduce the growth of cancer cells . One of the contents of sea cucumber that have numerous biological activity is saponin. Sea cucumber saponin is distributed in the body wall, internal organs, and glands of the marine invertebrate sea cucumber
Sea cucumber saponin significantly reduced serum glucose levels and increase serum insulin level in streptozotocin-diabetic . Sea cucumber saponins have been reported to decrease blood glucose levels in different mechanisms such as regeneration of insulin action via increased plasma insulin levels and release insulin from the pancreas. It modulates insulin signaling by decreases serum TNF-α and IL-6 level. Suppress the activity of disaccharide which was confirmed by decreasing the activity of serum-alpha amylase activity. It activates glycogen synthesis by increasing liver content of glycogen and repress of gluconeogenesis by decrease the level of serum adiponectin
This article review has abbreviated the fundamental role of sea cucumber saponin as an antidiabetic agent. Saponins from marine animals have been reported to have hypoglycemic activity. Saponins have been reported to decrease blood glucose levels in different mechanisms such as regeneration of insulin action via increased plasma insulin levels and release insulin from the pancreas. Suppress the activity of disaccharide which was confirmed by decreasing the activity of serum alpha-amylase activity. It activates glycogen synthesis by increasing the liver content of glycogen and repress gluconeogenesis by decrease the level of serum adiponectin. Thus, exploring the therapeutic potential of saponin which has been extracted from different species of sea cucumber on the diabetic patient will benefit millions of people who suffer diabetes and complication that result from hyperglycemia.